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The Role of Globalized Education in Achieving the Post-2015 Development Agenda by Emenike, Ogwo David

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have unquestionably been highly successful in bolstering governments’ commitment to poverty reduction, achieving basic education and health, promoting gender equality and environmental sustainability, and bridging the gaps in human development. In spite of these progresses, globalized education is still a requisite and the primary tool in achieving the Post-2015 Global Development Agenda – the continuation of effort to achieve prosperity, equity, freedom, dignity, peace and respect in a world of cultural and linguistic diversity after 2015.
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The complexity of today’s globalized world has made development challenges interlinked. Peace cannot be achieved and prosperity cannot be sustained without finding unified, common and general solutions and without all nations contributing unanimously and with a sense of shared responsibility. The Millennium Development Goals which will be succeeded by the Post-2015 Development Agenda at the end of 2015 (United Nation’s 70th Anniversary) have framed sustainable development as a universal project. The post-2015 development agenda include issues that are of common concern to all and pose challenges at national levels. Moreover, they define objectives to be achieved at the global level.

Before we delve deeper into the role of globalized education in achieving the post-2015 agenda, it will be apposite to have a proper understanding of the concepts that underpin the subject. Suffice it to say that education is both essential and indispensable for sustainable development. Globalized education fuels sustainable development as nations seek to transform their visions for the world into reality.

“Globalization,” as observed by Chang, “is the integration of national economies, culture, social life, technology, education and politics. It is the movement of people, ideas and technology from place to place.” Globalization affects all facets of life universally, scientifically, and technologically. Its effects are felt in world’s culture, economy, environmental, social and human disciplines. In its broadest sense, globalization refers to intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa.

Education has been recognized as a fundamental human right for more than half a century now. It is the endless process of bringing up people to know themselves, their environment, and how they can use their abilities and talents to contribute in the development of their society. Education improves the mind of the student for ethical conduct, good governance, liberty, life and rebirth of the society the student finds himself. Education, as an agent of change, empowers its recipient to be creative. It is a form of learning in which the knowledge, skills, and habits of a group of people are transferred from one generation to the next through teaching, training and research. Any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational.

Converse to the traditional way of teaching and learning, globalized education means adopting a universal, scientific, technological and a more holistic approach to education with the aim of preparing and equipping our young ones appropriately for sustainable development, and creating a peaceful and better world for this generation and posterity. Globalized education allows every child to acquire the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values to shape a sustainable future. It is, however, not culturally, religiously or geographically myopic. It is not racial or given to prejudice. In globalized education, schools do not function in isolation; they integrate with the world outside and expose students to different people and cultures, giving them the opportunity to appreciate cultural differences and what the planet offers, while respecting the need to preserve their culture and the natural and human resources that abound.

The Post-2015 Development Agenda refers to a process led by the United Nations (UN) that aims to help define the future development framework that will succeed the Millennium Development Goals. The recent UN development agenda is centered on the Millennium Development Goals that were officially established following the Millennium summit of the UN in 2000.

At this point, we can now advance our knowledge on the role of a sound and universal education in achieving this post-2015 development agenda which is expected to tackle and find suitable solutions to many issues, including ending poverty and hunger, improving health and the education system, making cities more sustainable, combating climate change, and protecting oceans and forests.

As the world stands at an historical juncture, it calls for a truly transformational and universal education system that integrates the three dimensions of sustainability (economic, social and environmental) in all activities, addresses inequalities in all areas, respect and advance human rights, fosters love and peace, and that is based on credible, equitable and sustainable system and safe environment for learning.

There are, of course, many different ways in which globalized education can be beneficial and advance the future sustainable development goals. Sound, universal and quality education is not only a top priority but also a cross-cutting matter which is indicated and reflected under three other pivotal goals related to health, economic growth and climate change.

A good global education is the step – the first step in ensuring that these development goals are achieved. Education marked by excellence and a conducive and habitable environment are two hallmarks of our world today. What we are taught, what we learn and how we treat our environment are connected to so many other possibilities in achieving a peaceful society where poverty has no place.

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The bedrock of sustainable development of every society is the education of its young ones. According to a report by experts, 90% of all brain development occurs by the age of five. By this, if we must realize our goals and raise a selfless generation that will continue from where we will stop in making the world more peaceful, we must start very early to educate them. The great aim of globalized education is to harness the student’s abilities, powers, capabilities and talents, and rightly molding the student into shape for helping and serving the community which he is a part.  

Global education has a felt influence on environmental sustainability. Successful implementation and actual use of new, affordable technologies for sanitation in Africa came with education. Another evident example of how globalized education is helping to achieve environmental sustainability is from a reported Eco-school in the United Arab Emirates which was awarded Green Flag, a symbol of excellence in environmental performance. The students put forward important environmental friendly approaches and messages within and beyond their school community. This innovative thinking to make good use of available natural resources, neither exploiting nor abusing them, came about as a result of a sound learning process that changed their behavior and gave room for them to adopt sustainable lifestyles.

“If we look to the future, when we talk about outsourcing jobs, when we talk about global competitiveness and our efficiency, none of that matters very much unless we have appropriate training and education for our young people today who are the workforce of tomorrow. It is an economic reality, and we are failing,” observed Bill Frist. The problem of unemployment does not wholly emanate from the government. Part of it rests on the individual. Why do we go to school? To learn, yes! But far from this narrow-minded purpose is the need to acquire knowledge, a skill, and a know-how that can be applied to earn a living and live a sustainable lifestyle which has positive impact on the society. Though all educated persons are not rich, but each possesses a knowledge that can get him a job, or which he can use to create one.

Hence, sound and excellent education with globalization as the driving wheel is a fundamental solution to poverty. This light of truth has been shed on many countries including The Bahamas. Perry Christie wrote, “The Bahamas seeks to lead the way by its investment in education, in social programmes, for the poor, disadvantaged, disabled and depressed. The largest budget item in The Bahamas is that segment dedicated to education. We will continue to invest in education because we know that the way to eliminate poverty is through the education of our citizens, and the development of the human persons.”

Moreover, there have been significant contributions of globalized education on the health sector. However, time and space will not permit us to have a detailed look at the impacts. Permit me to cite a report which states that “education of large numbers of community-based health workers reduced deaths from malaria by 66 percent in Zambia in six years.” With the right education in health technologies, medicine and other medically inclined fields and sciences, life expectancy will improve evenly and no country will be left behind.

Realizing the Post-2015 Development Agenda requires all hands to be on deck. The government alone cannot carry it. A fresh global partnership is to be forged. A new spirit of mutual accountability and cooperation must underpin the Post-2015 agenda so as to ensure uniform distribution of high quality educational materials to the poorest and least developed countries of the world. As we all know, access to computers and the internet and good conducive environment have become basic needs for education in our modern societies. This new alliance to finance and provide education to reach every child, even the ones in the streets, should be strictly based on a common understanding of our shared humanity, based on mutual respect and benefit. It should put people at the center including those affected by poverty and exclusion, women, youth, the aged, disabled persons, and indigenous people. Civil society organizations, local and national governments, multilateral institutions, the scientific and academic community, non-governmental organizations, businesses, and private philanthropy should come together and ensure that no one is left behind in getting globalized education for sustainable development.  We must  endeavor to see to it that every child, every individual, color or race notwithstanding gets the opportunity to receive a cost effective, high quality education, starting from prekindergarten to elementary and secondary, to special education, to technical and higher education and beyond. A popular Nigerian proverb says, “The upbringing of a child is not the sole responsibility of an individual but a communal responsibility.” Therefore, let us all answer the call and take up the rewarding task of ensuring a quality and universal education for all.

The role of globalized education in realizing the Post-2015 Development Agenda is to help people acquire and develop the knowledge, attitude, skills and values to make informed decisions for the good and well-being of themselves and others, now and for the future, and to act upon those decisions to bring about sustainable development and shape a sustainable future.

Globalized education should educate us out of selfishness and drive us into selflessness which links us with all humanity regardless of geographic boundaries, religious, racial and cultural differences. It is an approach to teaching and learning beyond the traditional model of “book teacher” based on the UN’s ideals and principles that underlie sustainability – human rights, poverty reduction, peaceful environmental protection, health, sustainable livelihood, biological and landscape diversity, climate change, gender equality, and protection of indigenous cultures.

Without mincing words, we can aver that globalized education can help achieving the Post-2015 development goals. For our assertion to stand and remain factual we must consider the interrelations that exist between education and development as they share a symbiotic relationship. Governments, institutions, organizations and individuals must recognize the full potential of education as a requisite and catalyst for sustainable development, and act as such.

Conclusively, globalized education is a multi-dimensional process that ultimately transforms our people, our economy, and our dear planet. Truly, globalized education empowers people, transforms lives, and shapes the system that drives the progress of sustainability. It is the foundation and the only means for achieving peace in our societies. It fosters economic growth thereby reducing poverty. It is growth and life, and a means to achieving the Post-2015 sustainable development agenda.

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Poet, Essayist & Author

Ogwo David Emenike is an illustrious Nigerian, a poet and young African visionary leader making a positive difference in the society. He champions causes for education, nation building, youth empowerment and sustainably development. He is a poet,   Consultant at Chartered Institute
of Management Accountants (CIMA), Nigeria and published author. He represented Nigeria in the 2013 International Leadership Blogathon, speaks in seminars and participates in life-betterment projects.

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African Music Museum and Hall of Fame

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Music is life and life is music. – Ifeanyi Enoch Onuoha,
Better-Life Coach

Music is as old as man here on earth. Music is a very powerful medium of communication and influence. Music and society are related.

Music creates and reflects conditions of the people and era. The therapeutic, psychological and economic power of music cannotbe overemphasized.
African is a great continent characterized by rich music heritage.

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The African Music Museum & Hall of Fame is a great and timely project will help restore peace and unite Africa and the entire world.

These center will serve great purposes like a hub for the learning of African music culture and heritage, a place relaxation, a tourist attraction and it will also create employment.

This project is one of its kind. It’s laudable and need the support of all and sundry.

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The pioneer of this beautiful project is Noni Camagwini Ntaka. She’s the daughter of a renown South African Jazz artist. She has given her best – time and resources for this project to be a success and we call on South African government, other African countries, the international communities and lovers of music to support this cause.

The African Music Museum & Hall of Fame is creating a new paradigm for the world to cherish Africa music, its history and the gifted people who made it happen.

This monument will be an institution where stuff about African Music and Musicians will be permanently housed and treasured.

This project will inspire and engage generations to appreciate and connect with works of past music maestros and challenge them to birth theirs. It will be a place for musical performance, study, exhibition, et cetera.
It will promote, preserve and perpetuate African music via celebrations of significant artists and arts

This project will enrich the rich African cultural heritage.

Notice: Hinovelty is a Life-betterment organization and this piece was written in honor of The African Music Museum & Hall of Fame.

ANTHOLOGY IN HONOR OF LATE DR. MAYA ANGELOU

The Phenomenal Woman Poetry Anthology

The Phenomenal Woman Poetry Anthology

Exactly one year after the death of world renowned poet Dr. Maya Angelou, Hinovelty – a Nigerian based life-betterment organization has launched an anthology of over 50 poems dedicated to Dr. Maya Angelou titled ‘The Phenomenal Woman Poetry Anthology: A Collection of Poems in Honor of Dr. Maya Angelou.’
The book features works from poets from different countries including the USA, Nigeria, India, South Africa, Botswana, Jamaica, Lesotho, Zimbabwe, Hungary, Philipine, Cameroun, Ghana, et cetera. This book was officially unveiled on 28th May 2015.

The idea for the book was inspired by Dr. Angelou in her role as an author, civil rights activist, teacher, life mentor and by and large her written contributions that changed the lives of many people.

“The anthology is a dedication honoring the poetic icon, Dr. Angelou who left a legacy for us to thrive and better ourselves and the communities in which we live”, said Ifeanyi Enoch Onuoha, a leader at Hinovelty.

In June 2014, Hinovelty put out a call to action on their blog, Facebook and Twitter pages, as well as on other blogs and news sites, requesting writers to submit their poems for the anthology.
They received an overwhelming contribution of poems submitted by poets from all over the world.

“The book was written to cause a social change that upholds values and uproots vices through the celebration of good role models, such as Dr. Angelou and to inspire the reader to live a purpose-driven life. And secondly to remind Dr. Angelou’s family that her memory and good works will be evergreen in our own lives”, added Mr Onuoha.

The contributing poets include published authors and prolific poets who are seasoned as well as uprising ones.

“As a young published author I have always been inspired by Maya Angelou and it’s a humbling experience for me to be a part of this history making experience, where I get the opportunity to honor the great woman that she was”, said Lerato Matsaneng a contributing poet and co-editor of the anthology.

Ogwo David Emenike, a young sage and poet is a co-editor of this work.The foreword of this book was written by Eriata Oribhabor, a renown poet and poetry promoter.
All the proceeds from the book will be used for youth and women empowerment programs.

The book is available on paperback on Amazon or as ebook on Kindle.
ENDS//

For interview requests, please contact:
Ifeanyi Enoch Onuoha and Lerato Matsaneng on hinovelty1@gmail.com
Hinovelty is a cutting-edge life-betterment organization focused on helping individuals and communities maximize their potentials.

Connect with Hinovelty

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Your Best Just Got Better by Jason Womack

A good book is a friend for life and I must confess that this book YOUR BEST JUST GOT BETTER by Jason Womack is life-enriching and inspiring.
Ifeanyi Enoch Onuoha holding his copy of YOUR BEST JUST GOT BETTER by Jason Womack

Ifeanyi Enoch Onuoha holding his copy of YOUR BEST JUST GOT BETTER by Jason Womack

This book is a powerful tool for life transformation. Truly, Jason Womack poured out his golden sagacity in this book.
Jason Womack is an educator, executive coach, highly sought after speaker and topnotch global peak performance expert. His coaching, training and consultancy helps leaders and organizations enjoy beautiful life and achieve greater success. Jason Womack is married to Jodi Womack and he is the CEO of Womack company which is into executive training and coaching. He lives in Ojai, California from where he travels to different parts of the world impacting lives positively. He is the person best suited to write this book and I thank God he authored it.
Jason Womack’s book helped me relearn to say No to some things, unlearn overworking myself and learned to give myself the gift of my attention.
If you desire to work smarter, think bigger and make more, then this book is for you. Be you a bud or boss, a teacher or student, employee or employer, there’s something beautiful for you in this book. Order your copy now via http://amzn.to/1JcqUvl and enjoy this rich masterpiece.
I endorse and recommend this book for you. Your life will experience a shift toward betterment as you journey through this book. It will fill you with the momentum to make your dream a reality. It’s one of the best gift you can give yourself and the people you love.
Book Reviewer:
Ifeanyi Enoch Onuoha is an illustrious Nigerian, a lover of books, life-betterment coach and positive change facilitator. He is the Chief Servant at Hinovelty a life-betterment organization helping people maximize their potentials.

#WhenSinglesGather

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Any nation that neglects the young generation is bound to fail. The young ones are full of energy, dreams and vitality. The best thing to do is to help them discover their unlimited potentials and guide them to maximize them and this is one of the reasons #WhenSinglesGather was birthed.

#WhenSinglesGather is a summit for singles. It’s a great platform to come learn timeless principles that will help you succeed, unlearn those stuff that have been limiting your journey to a greater you and relearn ageless values for a better life.

This summit is one of the biggest singles event in Nigeria.

The date for this summit is Saturday 19th May, 2015.
Time: 10am – 3pm
Venue: LCCI, Behind Marwa/MKO Gardens, Alausa, Ikeja, Lagos.

At this event, you will be learning from the sagacities of seasoned resource persons like:

Sunmbo Ajaba
Wife, Mom, Entrepreneur, Events Specialist, Goldman Sachs Scholar, CEO EsobEvents, Founder EsobHeroes, Convener: Inspiring
Change, Music Minister.

Sam Obafemi
Computer expert, emotional therapist, business strategist, life coach and author of ‘My Valleys.’

Lara Kudayisi Emeralds
Relationship counselor, blogger and author of ‘Dear Lara What Do I Do’ a relationship book that answers questions bothering many minds on relationship.

Mathew Adedoyin
This guy is a great leader, sexual abstinence advocate and public speaker.

Grace Festus Alao
A woman of substance, transformational leader, entrepreneur and the convener of #WhenSinglesGather.

These resource persons are highly sought after speakers and sit on the boards of many organizations

At this summit you will learn stuff about building and sustaining healthy relationship, truths about sex, sexiology and sex education and entrepreneural and business ideas that will help you make it in life and become wealthy and wise.

This event promises to be educating, inspiring and entertaining.

#WhenSinglesGather is powered by Embodiment of Grace.

Don’t miss this!

GLOBFLUENCE – a masterclass for influence

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Globfluence

GLOBFLUENCE is a masterclass for influence hosted by Ifeanyi Enoch Onuoha, a life-betterment coach, writer, speaker and positive change facilitator.

The vision of this masterclass is to equip, empower and position people to better their best and lead their industry.

Connect with Ifeanyi Enoch Onuoha
Twitter
Facebook
Bbmpin: 53443863
Phone Number: +2348037633034

Final Shortlist for The Phenomenal Woman Poetry Anthology

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We are happy to publish the final Shortlist for ‘The Phenomenal Woman Poetry Anthology’ in honor of Maya Angelou.

Here is the list of poets and writers whose work will appear in this book of legacy:

Rosemary Onyango
Christen a AV William
Lerato Matsaneng
Karoly Sandor Pallor
Elizabeth Esguerra Castillo
Paul Alowo
Mamello Keketso Sago
Abegunde Sunday Olaoluwa
Dan Saefullah Mustapha
Anurag A. Sharma
Amaka Imani Nkosazana
Sanni Oluwale
Bob McNeil
N.K. David
Lennee Reid
Paul Kasobya
Mbenkum Elvis Kinyuy
Mafa Maiketso
Koketso Marishanne
Emilly Achieng
Victoria Sophie Mamvura-Giwa
Trinisa M. Pitts
Kealoboga Mosekiemang
Eric Kombey Wolete
Oloyede Charles Akinropo
Olamide Oderinlo
Ralph Llyod
Ajise Vincent
Malgu Seebaway
Mmakgosi Ophadile Tau
Liketso Ramafikeng
Michael Babajide
Zainab Kakal
Elizabeth Ayoola
Thabo Moloi
Ngoanannete David Lekhanya
Tigele Nlebesi
Sigeh Leonard Lenjo
Oy in Oludipe
Rubaba Mohammed
Kearoma Mosata
Idowu Joshua
Dumiso Gatsha
Maphehelle Mokete
Ipinlaye Oluwakamiye Phoebe
Bismark Seth Okpoku
Habib Akewusola
Nomonde Ndwalaza
Paul Abiola Oku-Ola
Melissa Carruthers Wilson
Ogwo David Emenike
Ifeanyi Enoch Onuoha

We at Hinovelty congratulate you all for being chosen for this ageless work.

“With our writing, we will right the world.”

ASK THE WRITERS – Owerri Edition

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“Words are powerful and writers are the true lighters of a society.”
– Ifeanyi Enoch Onuoha

Writing is something that has to be worked on if the aim is to communicate and engage with readers. It is a craft which requires creative thinking, hard work, planning,  research, revision, careful use of words and a sense of purpose.

ASK THE WRITERS – Owerri Edition, is a classic event that offers the following:
* Opportunity to develop your writing capacity and stamina.

* Network with published and aspiring writers of different genres.

* Pathway to literacy

* Avenue to meet and greet with great souls.

Date: Saturday 27th September 2014
Time: 9am
Venue: Xtraval Leadership Center
38 Mbari Street, Ikenegbu, Owerri

To participate, simply pay in 1500naira (One Thousand Five Hundred Naira) to
Guaranty Trust Bank (GTBank)
Account Number: 0120774989
Account Name: Profound Impacts International

Send payment details (slip number, name and your phone number) to info@profoundimpacts.org

Speakers:

Richard Chilee
A thinker, writer and entrepreneur. Author: Rich Theory.

Ofor Aluka
Co-founder Griots Lounge, CEO Yagazie Media Ltd. Author: The Loudest Silence I Ever Heard

Cynthia Kelechi Akaluka
Exceptional young Shero, artist, educationists and motivational speaker. Author: Secrets of World Best Students

Emeka J. Nobis
Engineer, Thought leader, writer, speaker and lead strategist at Profound Impacts International

Your life will take a quantum leap to success after attending this event.

Writing events are excellent for writers and speakers at any stage of their career. Your writing skills impact your speaking power.
This event is a safe place to rub minds, talk shop, learn cutting edge tips, tricks and techniques to become not just a writer but a holistically developed person.

“With our writing, we can right our society.”
– Ifeanyi Enoch Onuoha

Note: At Hinovelty, we are focused and  on helping be your best.

Ebola Virus Disease

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Key facts:

Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, is a severe, often fatal illness in humans.
EVD outbreaks have a case fatality rate of up
to 90%. EVD outbreaks occur primarily in remote villages in Central and West Africa, near
tropical rainforests.

The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population
through human-to-human transmission.

Fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are considered to be the natural host of the Ebola virus.

Severely ill patients require intensive
supportive care. No licensed specific treatment or vaccine is available for use in people or animals.

Ebola first appeared in 1976 in 2 simultaneous outbreaks, in Nzara, Sudan, and in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of Congo. The latter was in
a village situated near the Ebola River, from which the disease takes its name. Genus Ebolavirus is 1 of 3 members of the Filoviridae family (filovirus), along with genus Marburgvirus and genus Cuevavirus. Genus Ebolavirus comprises 5 distinct species:
1. Bundibugyo ebolavirus (BDBV)
2. Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV)
3. Reston ebolavirus (RESTV)
4. Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV)
5. Taï Forest ebolavirus (TAFV).
BDBV, EBOV, and SUDV have been associated with large EVD outbreaks in Africa, whereas
RESTV and TAFV have not. The RESTV species, found in Philippines and the People’s Republic
of China, can infect humans, but no illness or death in humans from this species has been reported to date.

Transmission

Ebola is introduced into the human population through close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected animals. In Africa, infection has been documented through the handling of infected chimpanzees, gorillas, fruit bats, monkeys, forest antelope and porcupines found ill or dead or in the rainforest. Ebola then spreads in the community through
human-to-human transmission, with infection resulting from direct contact (through broken skin or mucous membranes) with the blood,
secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected people, and indirect contact with environments contaminated with such fluids.
Burial ceremonies in which mourners have direct contact with the body of the deceased person can also play a role in the transmission of Ebola. Men who have recovered from the
disease can still transmit the virus through their semen for up to 7 weeks after recovery from illness.

Health-care workers have frequently been infected while treating patients with suspected or confirmed EVD. This has occurred through close contact with patients when infection
control precautions are not strictly practiced.
Among workers in contact with monkeys or pigs infected with Reston ebolavirus, several infections have been documented in people who were clinically asymptomatic. Thus, RESTV appears less capable of causing
disease in humans than other Ebola species.
However, the only available evidence available comes from healthy adult males. It would be
premature to extrapolate the health effects of the virus to all population groups, such as immuno-compromised persons, persons with
underlying medical conditions, pregnant women
and children. More studies of RESTV are needed before definitive conclusions can be drawn about the pathogenicity and virulence of
this virus in humans.

Signs and symptoms

EVD is a severe acute viral illness often characterized by the sudden onset of fever, intense weakness, muscle pain, headache and
sore throat. This is followed by vomiting, diarrhoea, rash, impaired kidney and liver function, and in some cases, both internal and
external bleeding. Laboratory findings include low white blood cell and platelet counts and elevated liver enzymes.
People are infectious as long as their blood and secretions contain the virus. Ebola virus was
isolated from semen 61 days after onset of illness in a man who was infected in a laboratory.

The incubation period, that is, the time interval from infection with the virus to onset of symptoms, is 2 to 21 days.

Diagnosis

Other diseases that should be ruled out before a diagnosis of EVD can be made include: malaria, typhoid fever, shigellosis, cholera, leptospirosis, plague, rickettsiosis, relapsing fever, meningitis, hepatitis and other viral haemorrhagic fevers.
Ebola virus infections can be diagnosed definitively in a laboratory through several
types of tests:
antibody-capture enzyme-linked
immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
antigen detection tests
serum neutralization test
reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay
electron microscopy virus isolation by cell culture.
Samples from patients are an extreme biohazard risk; testing should be conducted under maximum biological containment
conditions.

Vaccine and treatment

No licensed vaccine for EVD is available. Several vaccines are being tested, but none are available for clinical use.
Severely ill patients require intensive supportive care. Patients are frequently dehydrated and require oral rehydration with solutions containing electrolytes or intravenous fluids.
No specific treatment is available. New drug therapies are being evaluated.

Natural host of Ebola virus

In Africa, fruit bats, particularly species of the genera Hypsignathus monstrosus, Epomops
franqueti and Myonycteris torquata, are considered possible natural hosts for Ebola
virus. As a result, the geographic distribution of Ebolaviruses may overlap with the range of the fruit bats.

Ebola virus in animals

Although non-human primates have been a source of infection for humans, they are not thought to be the reservoir but rather an
accidental host like human beings. Since 1994, Ebola outbreaks from the EBOV and TAFV species have been observed in chimpanzees
and gorillas. RESTV has caused severe EVD outbreaks in macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)
farmed in Philippines and detected in monkeys imported into the USA in 1989, 1990 and 1996, and in monkeys imported to Italy from
Philippines in 1992.
Since 2008, RESTV viruses have been detected during several outbreaks of a deadly disease in
pigs in People’s Republic of China and Philippines. Asymptomatic infection in pigs has been reported and experimental inoculations
have shown that RESTV cannot cause disease in pigs.

Prevention and control

Controlling Reston ebolavirus in domestic animals.
No animal vaccine against RESTV is available.
Routine cleaning and disinfection of pig or monkey farms (with sodium hypochlorite or other detergents) should be effective in inactivating the virus.
If an outbreak is suspected, the premises should be quarantined immediately. Culling of infected animals, with close supervision of
burial or incineration of carcasses, may be necessary to reduce the risk of animal-to-human transmission. Restricting or banning the
movement of animals from infected farms to other areas can reduce the spread of the
disease.
As RESTV outbreaks in pigs and monkeys have preceded human infections, the establishment
of an active animal health surveillance system to detect new cases is essential in providing
early warning for veterinary and human public health authorities.

Reducing the risk of Ebola infection in people

In the absence of effective treatment and a human vaccine, raising awareness of the risk
factors for Ebola infection and the protective
measures individuals can take is the only way
to reduce human infection and death.
In Africa, during EVD outbreaks, educational
public health messages for risk reduction
should focus on several factors:
Reducing the risk of wildlife-to-human
transmission from contact with infected fruit
bats or monkeys/apes and the consumption
of their raw meat. Animals should be handled
with gloves and other appropriate protective
clothing. Animal products (blood and meat)
should be thoroughly cooked before
consumption.
Reducing the risk of human-to-human
transmission in the community arising from
direct or close contact with infected patients,
particularly with their bodily fluids. Close
physical contact with Ebola patients should be
avoided. Gloves and appropriate personal
protective equipment should be worn when
taking care of ill patients at home. Regular
hand washing is required after visiting
patients in hospital, as well as after taking
care of patients at home.
Communities affected by Ebola should inform
the population about the nature of the disease
and about outbreak containment measures,
including burial of the dead. People who have
died from Ebola should be promptly and safely
buried.
Pig farms in Africa can play a role in the
amplification of infection because of the
presence of fruit bats on these farms.
Appropriate biosecurity measures should be in
place to limit transmission. For RESTV,
educational public health messages should
focus on reducing the risk of pig-to-human
transmission as a result of unsafe animal
husbandry and slaughtering practices, and
unsafe consumption of fresh blood, raw milk or
animal tissue. Gloves and other appropriate
protective clothing should be worn when
handling sick animals or their tissues and when
slaughtering animals. In regions where RESTV
has been reported in pigs, all animal products
(blood, meat and milk) should be thoroughly
cooked before eating.
Controlling infection in health-care settings
Human-to-human transmission of the Ebola
virus is primarily associated with direct or
indirect contact with blood and body fluids.
Transmission to health-care workers has been
reported when appropriate infection control
measures have not been observed.
It is not always possible to identify patients
with EBV early because initial symptoms may
be non-specific. For this reason, it is important
that health-care workers apply standard
precautions consistently with all patients –
regardless of their diagnosis – in all work
practices at all times. These include basic hand
hygiene, respiratory hygiene, the use of
personal protective equipment (according to
the risk of splashes or other contact with
infected materials), safe injection practices and
safe burial practices.
Health-care workers caring for patients with
suspected or confirmed Ebola virus should
apply, in addition to standard precautions, other
infection control measures to avoid any
exposure to the patient’s blood and body fluids
and direct unprotected contact with the
possibly contaminated environment. When in
close contact (within 1 metre) of patients with
EBV, health-care workers should wear face
protection (a face shield or a medical mask and
goggles), a clean, non-sterile long-sleeved
gown, and gloves (sterile gloves for some
procedures).
Laboratory workers are also at risk. Samples
taken from suspected human and animal Ebola
cases for diagnosis should be handled by
trained staff and processed in suitably
equipped laboratories.
WHO response
WHO provides expertise and documentation to
support disease investigation and control.
Recommendations for infection control while providing care to patients with suspected or confirmed Ebola haemorrhagic fever are provided in: Interim infection control
recommendations for care of patients with
suspected or confirmed Filovirus (Ebola,
Marburg) haemorrhagic fever , March 2008.
This document is currently being updated.

WHO has created an aide–memoire on standard precautions in health care (currently
being updated). Standard precautions are
meant to reduce the risk of transmission of
bloodborne and other pathogens. If universally
applied, the precautions would help prevent
most transmission through exposure to blood
and body fluids.
Standard precautions are recommended in the
care and treatment of all patients regardless of
their perceived or confirmed infectious status.
They include the basic level of infection control
—hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment to avoid direct contact with blood and body fluids, prevention of needle stick and injuries from other sharp instruments, and a set
of environmental controls.

For more information contact:

WHO Media centre
Telephone: +41 22 791 2222
E-mail: mediainquiries@who.int